Recent evidence has shown that MCP-1 enhances collagen deposition by fibroblasts [ 67 ]; therefore, increased expression of this chemokine in the lungs of asthmatics might be responsible for the airway remodelling that can exacerbate AHR. So far, most of the results indicating a role for chemokines in AHR have been obtained through murine models employing chemokine neutralization, transgenic methods or gene knockout methods.
The question therefore arises as to why chemokines would be beneficial targets for the therapeutic treatment of AHR in humans. Clinical studies have shown elevated levels of the chemokines and chemokine receptors that have been identified in murine models and in BALF, bronchial biopsies and sputum from allergic asthmatics Table 3. Eotaxin, CCR3, mRNA and protein have been found to be significantly elevated in bronchial mucosal biopsies from atopic asthmatics in comparison with normal controls [ 68 ].
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Therefore the chemokines that have been shown to have a role in AHR in murine models are elevated in human disease and might be potential targets for the development of therapeutic interventions. Taken together, both experimental evidence from murine models and clinical evidence of elevated chemokine and chemokine receptor levels in the allergic asthmatic lung suggest that chemokines, and their receptors, seem to be effective targets for the development of therapeutic interventions to be used in addition to current therapy for the treatment of AHR.
However, it remains to be seen whether the first clinical trials bear out this promise. McDowell KM: Pathophysiology of asthma. Respir Care Clin N Am , 6: 15— Clin Rev Allergy , 9: — Postma DS, Kerstjens HA: Characteristics of airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Chest , 45— Can Respir J , 5: 16— J Clin Invest , — Crit Rev Immunol , 1— Ther Immunol , 1: — J Biol Chem , — J Immunol , — Blood , — Science , — A model for cytokine networks in the lung.
Relationship to symptoms and bronchial responsiveness. Am Rev Respir Dis , — Relationship to bronchial hyperreactivity. Am Rev Respir Dis , 62— Correlation with macrophages and eosinophils in broncholavage fluid.
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Whether either causal, or merely a marker of an independent process is unclear. There are tantalizing hints that perhaps specific viral and bacterial infections may be important, and evidence that very early life factors are significant above. However, it is clear that once changes of remodeling and Type 2 inflammation have set in, it is too late to reverse the march to eosinophilic school age asthma.
We do not know how the pathways to disease arise, and currently, have no means of reducing risk. The group has recruited a birth cohort of 1, babies. Nasal epithelial cells as a surrogate for bronchial have been harvested and cultured within 2 weeks of birth.
Nasal, pharyngeal, and throat swabs have been collected for microbiome studies, and a blood spots taken for transcriptomics. The babies are followed prospectively with repeated sampling of nasal cells, blood and microbiome in the first year of life, and at 1 and 3 years. A monthly on-line video-questionnaire about respiratory symptoms is filled in by the parents. The aim is to relate the initial samples and the developmental changes in cellular and immune function, and the microbiome to wheeze outcomes.
Additionally, in order further to understand the pathobiology of end stage disease and try to relate it to the developmentally evolving pathways, namely pre-school wheeze and eosinophilic asthma phenotypes, three other groups will be studied. The first is children undergoing routine pediatric surgery, from whom blind lower airway lavage and brushings will be taken, as well as nasal brushings, microbiome studies, and peripheral blood; and severe pre-school wheezers and severe, therapy-resistant asthmatics who are undergoing a clinically indicated bronchoscopy.
The same samples will be taken in these last two groups, the only difference being the lower airway samples will be taken under direct vision rather than blindly. A further use of the samples from these latter groups is the comparison of upper and lower airway samples, so we can determine how good a reflection of the relevant pathways the nasal cells from the birth cohort actually are. There is also a bi-directional interaction with the STELAR asthma e-lab , which houses data including genetics on more than 14, children from the British birth cohorts.
Conversely, any genetic signal will be validated using cellular studies, progressing to animal work if necessary. It is hoped that endotypes will be dissected out with this prospective approach. This chapter has reviewed potential avenues where studying cytokines and growth factors may enable us to determine risk factors for the development of asthma.
It is very clear that the pathways from asymptomatic baby at birth to intermittent viral wheeze to remission or progression to eosinophilic asthma are unknown, and we do not have any empirical interventions which work. We know that early airflow obstruction persists lifelong, with a greatly increased risk of later COPD , If we are to intervene, it will need to be before the child goes to school, and this means that the very early years are where the answers must be found and interventions applied.
For this author, focussing on epithelial function, the interactions of epithelial cells with viral and bacterial infection, and epithelial cytokine and chemokine production, is the most likely fruitful field of study. Allergic sensitization may well be important in propagating eosinophilic airway disease, but Type 2 inflammation is a late-comer to the asthmas, and likely, its onset means that the chance for disease-modifying interventions has been lost forever.
So it seems unlikely that early initiation of monoclonals such as mepolizumab directed against TH-2 high asthma will be disease-modifying, although this should be tested at least initially in a suitable animal model Monoclonals directed against the alarmins, or perhaps other components of the immune system, may be the answer. It is intriguing to speculate that asthma may be an infectious disease after all Some of us are old enough to remember the derision with which the suggestion that spirochetes caused duodenal ulcer was received.
Now antibiotic treatment of Helicobacter pylori cures them.
New chemokine targets for asthma therapy
Perhaps the wheel will turn full circle and our professional children will cure asthma with antibiotics after all. The author confirms being the sole contributor of this work and has approved it for publication. The author declares that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. After asthma — redefining airways diseases. A Lancet commission. Dissociation between airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness in allergic asthma. Asthma severity and inflammation markers in children.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol. Effects of treatment with anti-immunoglobulin E antibody omalizumab on airway inflammation in allergic asthma. Evidence of a role of tumor necrosis factor alpha in refractory asthma.
Chemokines and their role in airway hyper-reactivity
N Engl J Med. Early thickening of the reticular basement membrane in children with difficult asthma. The relationship between inflammation and remodeling in childhood asthma: a systematic review. Pediatr Pulmonol. Perennial allergen sensitisation early in life and chronic asthma in children: a birth cohort study. Trajectories of lung function during childhood. Maternal nicotine exposure upregulates collagen gene expression in fetal monkey lung. Association with alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Prenatal nicotine exposure increases GABA signaling and mucin expression in airway epithelium.
Nicotine alters lung branching morphogenesis through the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.
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Prenatal nicotine increases pulmonary alpha7 nicotinic receptor expression and alters fetal lung development in monkeys. J Clin Invest. Increased airway responsiveness and decreased alveolar attachment points following in utero smoke exposure in the guinea pig. The influence of a family history of asthma and parental smoking on airway responsiveness in early infancy. PubMed Abstract Google Scholar. Bronchial responsiveness in the neonatal period as a risk factor for wheezing in infancy.
Interaction between asthma and lung function growth in early life.
Alterations in airway wall properties in infants with a history of wheezing disorders. Airway remodeling and inflammation in symptomatic infants with reversible airflow obstruction. Increased airway smooth muscle in preschool wheezeers who have asthma at school age.
PayPerView: Role of Eotaxin and Related CC Chemokines in Allergy and Asthma - Karger Publishers
J Allergy Clin Immunol. Clinical and pathologic factors predicting future asthma in wheezing children. Bush A, Saglani S. Structurally unsound? Why airways become asthmatic. Effect of bronchoconstriction on airway remodeling in asthma. Sparrow M, Weichselbaum M. Structure and function of the adventitial and mucosal nerve plexuses of the bronchial tree in the developing lung.
Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. Spontaneous peristaltic airway contractions propel lung liquid through the bronchial tree of intact and fetal lung explants. Fetal airway smooth-muscle contractility and lung development. A player in the band or just someone in the audience? Intrauterine smoke exposure deregulates lung function, pulmonary transcriptomes, and in particular insulin-like growth factor IGF -1 in a sex-specific manner.
Sci Rep. IL promotes airway remodeling in pediatric patients with severe, steroid-resistant asthma. Type 2 innate lymphoid cells in induced sputum from children with severe asthma. Relationship between amphiregulin and airway inflammation in children with asthma and eosinophilic bronchitis. Tissue remodeling induced by hypersecreted epidermal growth factor and amphiregulin in the airway after an acute asthma attack.
Involvement of the epidermal growth factor receptor in epithelial repair in asthma. Reduced lung function both before bronchiolitis and at 11 years. Arch Dis Child. Cytokine response patterns, exposure to viruses, and respiratory infections in the first year of life. Antenatal determinants of neonatal immune response to allergens. Clin Exp Allergy. Maternal smoking is associated with impaired neonatal toll-like-receptor-mediated immune responses.
Eur Respir J. Asthmatic bronchial epithelial cells have a deficient innate immune response to infection with rhinovirus. J Exp Med. Nat Med. Impaired innate interferon induction in severe therapy resistant atopic asthmatic children. Mucosal Immunol. Increased nuclear suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 in asthmatic bronchial epithelium suppresses rhinovirus induction of innate interferons. Rhinovirus-induced interferon production is not deficient in well controlled asthma.
Toll-like receptor 7 governs interferon and inflammatory responses to rhinovirus and is suppressed by ILinduced lung eosinophilia. Th2 cytokines impair innate immune responses to rhinovirus in respiratory epithelial cells. At-risk children with asthma ARC : a systematic review. Pro-inflammatory mediator responses from neonatal airway epithelial cells and early childhood wheeze. Airway epithelial cytokine responses in childhood wheeze are independent of atopic status.
Respir Med. Epithelial damage and angiogenesis in the airways of children with asthma. Bronchoalveolar cell profiles in children with asthma, infantile wheeze, chronic cough, or cystic fibrosis. Epithelial stress and structural remodelling in childhood asthma. Dysregulated repair in asthmatic paediatric airway epithelial cells: the role of plasminogen activator inhibitor Strachan DP. Day care attendance in early life, maternal history of asthma, and asthma at the age of 6 years.
Inflammatory memory sensitizes skin epithelial stem cells to tissue damage. Respiratory syncytial virus and recurrent wheeze in healthy preterm infants. Respiratory syncytial virus disease is mediated by age-variable IL PLoS Pathog. Healthy but not RSV-infected lung epithelial cells profoundly inhibit T cell activation. Viral mimic poly- I:C attenuates airway epithelial T-cell suppressive capacity: implications for asthma.
Infant viral respiratory infection nasal immune-response patterns and their association with subsequent childhood recurrent wheeze. Wheezing rhinovirus illnesses in early life predict asthma development in high-risk children. Rhinovirus illnesses during infancy predict subsequent childhood wheezing. Cytokine responses to rhinovirus and development of asthma, allergic sensitization, and respiratory infections during childhood. Respiratory syncytial virus in early life and risk of wheeze and allergy by age 13 years.
Exposure to farming in early life and development of asthma and allergy: a cross-sectional survey. Exposure to environmental microorganisms and childhood asthma. Innate immunity and asthma risk in amish and hutterite farm children. Sci Immunol. Neutrophilic inflammation in childhood bronchial asthma. Childhood asthma after bacterial colonization of the airway in neonates. Pathogenic bacteria colonizing the airways in asymptomatic neonates stimulates topical inflammatory mediator release.
Children with asthma by school age display aberrant immune responses to pathogenic airway bacteria as infants. Neonatal airway colonization is associated with troublesome lung symptoms in infants. Increased risk of pneumonia and bronchiolitis after bacterial colonization of the airways as neonates. Neonates colonized with pathogenic bacteria in the airways have a low-grade systemic inflammation. Pediatr Infect Dis J. Haemophilus is overrepresented in the nasopharynx of infants hospitalized with RSV infection and associated with increased viral load and enhanced mucosal CXCL8 responses.
Streptococcus pneumoniae colonization of the nasopharynx is associated with increased severity during respiratory syncytial virus infection in young children. Thus, it appears that CCR3 is substantially involved in the recruitment of inflammatory cells in the allergic response. Confirming this issue, the pretreatment of eosinophils from allergic and eosinophilic donors with a monoclonal antibody to CCR3 blocked chemotaxis and calcium flux induced by all CCR3 ligands These results demonstrated the importance of CCR3 for eosinophil responses.
Although some specific eosinophil function depends on CCR3 activation, other receptors expressed by eosinophils also appear to be functional. Recent studies observed that peripheral blood eosinophils from patients with eosinophilic lung diseases expressed other chemokine receptors in addition to CCR3. It was observed that bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophils from allergic patients had an increase in CXCR4 and a decrease in CCR3 expression These results suggest that CCR3 may be a primary mediator and CXCR4 is cooperatively involved in the eosinophil accumulation at inflamed tissue sites.
Initially, CCR3 was thought to be specific to eosinophils, but has subsequently been detected on Th2 cell subsets, as well as basophils, mast cells, neural tissue and airway epithelia. It appears that CCR3 is important for the basal trafficking of eosinophils to the intestinal mucosa but not to the lung. Furthermore, CCR3 may be involved in mast cell homing to epithelial tissues 44,45 as well as leukotriene C 4 production by eosinophils and basophils Other chemokine receptors vary considerably in their expression patterns between leukocyte subsets Tables 3 and 4.
These observations highlight the complexity and difficulty researchers have faced in the functional characterization of chemokines and their receptors. When examining responses in various cell types, the complexity of the chemokine system becomes readily evident. There are experimental data demonstrating that eotaxin CCL11 is the most potent eosinophil chemotactic factor. In studies from our laboratories, we have observed that eosinophils elicited from the peritoneum of sensitized mice display additional chemotactic responses to specific CC chemokines, which are absent from peripheral blood eosinophils.
Historically, the CXC chemokine receptor expression was thought to be common in neutrophils but not in eosinophils. However, the role of CXC receptor expression in eosinophil function has been described recently. These studies provide useful insights into novel mechanisms of action of the CXC chemokines in the pathophysiology of allergic inflammation, including initiation, progression and termination of the eosinophilic processes. AMDtreated animals had reduced airway hyperreactivity, peribronchial eosinophilia and overall inflammatory responses, as well as reduced IL-4 and IL-5 levels Therefore, although most of the research in allergic asthma has concentrated on the CC family of chemokines, the CXC family also appears to have a distinct function in the overall development and severity of disease.
Chemokines play an important role in the allergic inflammatory process through the initiation of leukocyte recruitment, activation and regulation of disease severity. Chemokines are very promiscuous and bind to multiple receptors. Therefore, determining the precise function of the individual chemokines and receptors will be essential to the definition of the correct targets.
The analysis of the function of eosinophils and their chemokine receptors during inflammation continues to be a good approach to understanding the determinants of asthma severity and developing novel therapies. Blocking the infiltration of eosinophils and other cell populations by manipulation of chemokine-mediated responses may have a large impact on disease severity. Luster AD Chemokines-chemotactic cytokines that mediate inflammation. New England Journal of Medicine , Chemokines and asthma: redundancy of function or a coordinated effort?
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